新闻 汽车 房产 家居 财经 美食 购物 健康 娱乐 教育 科技 便民 旅游
张家界资讯 > 新闻 > 正文

新莽钱币一组

来源: 网络 发布时间:2021-02-23 11:40:06

新莽钱为西汉末年到新朝时期王莽币制改革所发行的一系列货币。王莽在位期间共进行了四次货币改革,这位改革家改革速度之快,实施态度之严肃彻底,令人叹为观止。

王莽当政后,为了削弱汉朝旧族势力,以及对百姓的财富掠夺,他以“托古改制”为名进行了一系列的币制改革。刀币和布币都在改革中恢复,但从形态上与春秋战国时的并不相同。由于币制复杂混乱,导致民间交易很不顺畅。并且每次改制的钱币大小不断缩小,价却越来越高,实质上剥削了普通民众的财富。币制改革的失败也是新朝迅速灭亡的原因之一。

尽管王莽的改革是失败的,但他所发行的一系列钱币却是古钱史上的精品。货币多采用悬针篆的字体,制作十分精美。史籍失载的国宝金匮直万是价值最高的古钱之一,存世极少。2006年西安还曾出土过国珍金匮五千等西汉末期及新朝的货币。据考证,这两种币均可能为西汉居摄二年(公元7年)第一次货币改革时的产物,未流通,属试铸品。[2]

布泉也是史籍失载的新朝货币。有学者认为其非货币,而是《汉书·卷九十九中·王莽传第六十九中》中所说的“始建国二年……吏民出入,持布钱以副符传,不持者,厨传勿舍,关津苛留。公卿皆持以入宫殿门,欲以重而行之。”但也有学者根据现存钱范等证据认为,布泉实属货币,且流通过,是与第四次货币改革时发行的货泉同时流通的。而上述《汉书·王莽传》中所说者为大布黄千。还有学者认为,布泉是王莽于第四次货币改革后,又尝试进一步收缩之前的改革措施,将货布、货泉二品改为布泉一品,逐步暗地推行。其铸造时间应为地皇元年至王莽死亡之间。

Xinmang money is a series of currencies issued by the reform of Wang Mang's currency system from the late Western Han Dynasty to the New Dynasty.Wang Mang carried out four currency reforms during his reign. The speed of his reforms and the seriousness and thoroughness with which he carried them out are astonishing.

After Wang Mang came to power, he carried out a series of currency system reforms in the name of "Tuogu Reform" in order to weaken the power of the old tribes in the Han Dynasty and plunder the wealth of the common people.Both the knife coin and the cloth coin were recovered during the reform, but they were not the same as those in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period.Because the currency system is complicated and chaotic, the folk transaction is not smooth.And each time the size of the coin is shrinking, but the price is higher and higher, essentially exploiting the wealth of ordinary people.The failure of currency reform also contributed to the rapid demise of the new dynasty.

Although Wang Mang's reform was a failure, the series of coins he issued were the finest in the history of ancient coins.The currency mostly uses the cantsuzhuan font, which is very exquisite.Lost in the history of the national treasure, golden or straight ten thousand is one of the highest value of ancient money, very few in the world.In 2006, the coins of the late Western Han Dynasty and the new dynasty, such as the national treasure, golden or "priceless", were unearthed in Xi 'an.According to textual research, these two kinds of coins may be the Western Han Dynasty in the second year of the first monetary reform (AD 7) products, did not circulate, is a trial cast.[2]

Buquan is also a lost historical record of the new dynasty currency.Some scholars believe that it is not currency, but the "Hanshu · Book of ninety-nine · Wang Mang Biography of the sixty-ninth" said that "the second year of the founding of the state......Officials in and out of the people, with cloth money to vice - run, do not hold, kitchen pass not to give up, Guan Jin Caoleave.Duke all hold to enter the palace door, and want to do it."However, some scholars, based on the existing evidence such as Qian Fan, believed that Buquan was actually currency and circulated at the same time as the Huoquan issued during the Fourth Monetary Reform.In the above-mentioned Biography of Wang Mang in the Book of Han, the person mentioned is Dabu Huang Qian.Some scholars believe that Buquan was a reform measure taken by Wang Mang after the fourth monetary reform and before he tried to further shrink it. He changed the two products of Huo Bu and Huo Quan into Buquan one product and gradually carried out the reform secretly.The casting time should be between the first year of the emperor and the death of Wang Mang.

王莽于公元7至14年间,先后进行了四次币制改革。先铸大值刀币遭反,进而复古改制。行用“五物”(金、银、铜、龟、贝)、“六名”(黄金、银货、龟币、贝币、布、泉)计二十八品。由于货币“複杂难辨,天下骚动”而告终。以后又连续两次币制改革,为后世留下了一刀平五千(错刀)、契刀五百、“六泉”、“十布”、布泉、货泉、货布、国宝金匮直万等种类繁多、式样新颖、铸造精良、艺术绝伦的历史遗产。中国书法艺术分篆、隶、楷、行、草五大类。自李斯受秦始皇书同文之命创小篆以来,货币上的文字多以小篆为主。莽钱上的书法艺术,在传统篆字书写的基础上,加以发展变化,融钱文书法线篆、悬针篆和长脚篆为一体,呈现出精美绝伦的艺术特色。横若巨木托殿,钢柱挡道,气势逼人;曲似惊鸿飞蹄,自由舒展,流畅自然;竖如高山瀑布,一泻千里,势不可挡,又像铁线悬空,遒劲挺拔,坚不可摧。纵览诸钱钱文书法,清秀而无柔弱之感,奔放而有内敛之气。其线条之流畅,力度之劲健,形体之优美,结构布白之均衡,疏密之有緻,书法精髓俱现,是其他货币文字难望其项背的。

Wang Mang carried out four reforms of the currency system from 7 to 14 AD.First cast large value knife coin was reversed, and then retro reform.The bank used "five things" (gold, silver, copper, turtle, shellfish) and "six" (gold, silver goods, turtle coin, shellfish coin, cloth, spring) to count twenty-eight articles.It ended with currency being "complicated and chaotic".After the two successive monetary system reforms, it left a historical heritage of five thousand Yidao Ping (wrong Dao), five hundred Qi Dao, "Six Quan", "Ten Bu", "Buquan", "Huquan", "Hubu", "National Treasure," Jinjihui ", etc., which are diverse in variety, novel in style, excellent in casting, and unpeerless in art.Chinese calligraphy art is divided into five categories: seal script, scribe, regular script, line and grass.Since Li Si was ordered by Emperor Qin Shihuang to create xiao zhuan, the characters on the currency are mainly xiao zhuan.Mang money on the calligraphy art, on the basis of the traditional seal writing, to develop and change, the money document normal seal seal, seal seal and long foot seal seal as one, showing exquisite artistic characteristics.Cross if the giant wooden temple, steel column block the way, threatening momentum;Qu like Jing Hong flying hoof, free stretch, smooth and natural;Vertical as mountains and waterfalls, a thousand miles, unstoppable, and like wire hanging in the air, the vigorous and straight, indestructible.Overview of the Qian Qian calligraphy, delicate and not weak sense, bold and restrained gas.Its smooth lines, dynamic strength, beautiful form, balanced structure of white cloth, density, the essence of calligraphy, is unmatched by other currency characters.